The Age of Feudalism
Kings and Castles and Chivalry
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How Feudalism Worked
The Land and Its Workers
What Was a Castle?
Glossary of Feudal Terms
Common Occupations
By Michael J. Cummings...© 2003

.......Gallant knights, beautiful princesses and clashing swords are the stuff of many Shakespeare plays, notably his histories. King John, Henry V, Richard II, Richard III, Macbeth—all title characters of Shakespeare plays—ruled in Britain during the age of moats and drawbridges, when chain-mailed warriors vied on foot and horseback for God, country, and glory.
.......This age of kings and castles, or the Feudal Age, was born in Europe in the dawning shadows of the Dark Ages. After the Roman Empire collapsed in the late Fifth Century A.D., its former territories in central Europe had to fend for themselves. In time, without the might of the imperial Roman sword to protect them, these territories fell prey to Viking invaders from the north and Muslim invaders from the south. 
.......By the 730's, the Muslims had penetrated central Europe through Spain. However, Charles Martel, the ruler of the kingdom of the Franks in northeastern Europe and southwestern Germany, repulsed the Muslims with soldiers granted land in return for military service as horsemen. (Horse soldiers, or cavalry, had the speed and maneuverability to quell the Muslim threat.) This arrangement–granting land in exchange for service–was the founding principle of feudalism. 
.......The Franks continued to stand as a protective bulwark under Martel's successors, Pepin the Short and Charlemagne. But after Louis I the Pious assumed power in 813, the Franks commenced fighting among themselves over who should succeed to the throne. This internal strife, along with Viking attacks, resulted in the eventual breakup of the Frankish kingdom. In 911, Viking marauders seeded themselves in western France, in present-day Normandy, and took root. By the late 900's, much of Europe  (France, England, western Germany, northern Spain, and Sicily) had evolved into a land of local kingdoms in which rulers took refuge behind the walls of castles and leased land to people willing to protect and maintain a kingdom against rival kingdoms or outside invaders. The feudal system of offering land in exchange for service then bloomed to full flower.

How Feudalism Worked

.......The king of a domain granted an expanse of land (fief) to selected men of high standing in return for a pledge of allegiance and military service. These men, who came to be known as great lords (or grands seigneurs) then awarded portions of their land to lesser lords, or vassals, for a similar pledge of loyalty, or fealty, as well as dues and an agreement to fight the lord's enemies. In return, the great lord met the everyday needs of the vassals. Knights, highly trained mounted warriors, were the backbone of the great lord's army. Failure by a great lord or a vassal to live up to a commitment, or warranty, was a felony, a crime punishable by loss of the offender's title, land, and other assets. In severe cases, the offender sometimes lost his life or a limb. 

.....What a King or Great Lord Gave ---> Land
.....What a King or Great Lord Received ---> Protection (Military Service)

The Land and Its Workers

.......The estate on which a lord lived was called a manor. Peasants, or serfs, were attached to the land as property. They paid rents and taxes, farmed the land and performed many other servile duties. Sometimes freemen also worked the land. The lord exercised full political and social control over his land.
What Was a Castle?

.......A castle was a walled fortress of a king or lord. The word castle is derived from the Latin castellum, meaning a fortified place. Generally, a castle was situated on an eminence (a piece of high ground) that had formed naturally or was constructed by laborers. High ground constructed by laborers was called a motte (French for mound); the motte may have been 100 to 200 feet wide and 40 to 80 feet high. The area inside the castle wall was called the bailey. Some castles had several walls, with smaller circles within a larger circle or smaller squares within a larger square. 
.......The outer wall of a castle was usually topped with a battlement, a protective barrier with spaced openings through which defenders could shoot arrows at attackers. This wall sometimes was surrounded by a water-filled ditch called a moat, a defensive barrier to prevent the advance of soldiers, horses and war machines. At the main entrance was a drawbridge, which could be raised to prevent entry. Behind the drawbridge was a portcullis [port KUL is], or iron gate, which could be lowered to further secure the castle. Within the castle was a tower, or keep, to which castle residents could withdraw if an enemy breached the portcullis and other defenses. Over the entrance of many castles was a projecting gallery with machicolations [muh CHIK uh LAY shuns], openings in the floor through which defenders could drop hot liquids or stones on attackers. In the living quarters of a castle, the king and his family dined in a great hall on an elevated platform called a dais [DAY is], and they slept in a chamber called a solar
.......The age of castles ended after the development of gunpowder and artillery fire enabled armies to breach thick castle walls instead of climbing over them.
Commonly Used Feudal Terms

accolade [AK uh laid]: ceremony in which a squire was made a knight. The squire received a kiss on a cheek or a touch on the shoulder with the flat of a sword. 
apprentice: beginner in a medieval craft who learned his trade by working under a master craftsman; the apprentice received food and lodging for his work
ashlar: blocks of stone cut into squares that enabled application of thin mortar joints
assize: [uh SIZE] court held in England to try criminal and civil cases
bailey: see above
baldric [BAL drik]: belt worn across the chest to support a sword, dagger or horn 
barbican[BAR bih kin]: tower constructed at the drawbridge or gate of a castle to provide increased security
battlement: see above
beaver: hinged metal flap on a knight's helmet that protects the chin and mouth; it can be raised and lowered
black death: outbreak of bubonic and pneumonic plague that killed between one-third and two-thirds of the European population between 1347 and 1351. 
blancmange: [bluh MANJ] sweet dessert with a jelly-like texture
blazon[BLAY zun]: description of a coat of arms or the coat of arms itself; armorial shield 
bodkin [BOD kin]: dagger; knife, stiletto
braze: make or coat something with brass
brazier: [BRAY zher] craftsman who makes or coats something with brass
burgess [BUR jihs]: citizen of a British borough
Camelot [KAM uh lot]: legendary residence of King Arthur; seat of King Arthur's court 
castle: see above
catapult [KAT uh pult]: weapon which launched boulders and other projectiles over castle walls 
cathedral: principal church of a bishop; coronation place of royalty 
chain mail: flexible metal armor 
chamberlain [CHAME ber lin]: manager of a sovereign or lord's household 
chandler [CHAND ler]: maker (or seller) of candles and products make of wax or tallow, such as soap
chatelaine [SHAT uh LAIN]: lord's wife, who had complete charge of the domestic affairs of the castle 
chausses: [SHOSE] chain-mail armor for the legs and feet of a knight
chevalier:  [shuh VAL yay]: French word for knight
chivalry [SHIV l re]: the exemplary conduct expected of a knight; a knight's code of behavior 
coat of arms: coat or shield displaying symbols that told of the qualities of the wearer and his family. For example, a lion signified bravery, and a leopard stood for vigilance. 
chronicler [KRON ih kler]: recorder of medieval events; historian 
courser: fast and powerful horse favored by knights
crenelated: [KREN uh LATE id] having spaced openings, as a battlement on a castle wall 
Crusade: military expedition undertaken to win back the Holy Land from the Moslems; the Crusades took place between 1096 and 1300 A.D. 
cuirass [kwih RAHSS]: breastplate; armor protecting the chest and back 
dais: [DAY ihs]see above
Dame : title of a knight's wife; title of a baronet's wife; title of a female knight in modern times 
damsel [DAM zl]: maiden; young woman of noble heritage; unmarried woman 
damoiseau [duh MWAHZ oh]: French term for a page undergoing training
Dark Ages: early part of the Middle Ages; (see Middle Ages) 
demesne: [dih MAIN] estate; land of a feudal lord
dirk: dagger, knife, stiletto 
Domesday Book [DOOMS day book]: official census of the English people and their possessions, notably land, which was completed in 1086 at the behest of King William I (William the Conqueror) 
doublet: sleeveless jacket
draught [draft]: a portion of liquid drawn from a container, such as a cask; a glass of ale or beer
dray: cart for pulling heavy loads
drayman: man who drives a dray
drawbridge: see above
dubbing: conferring knighthood on a young man by tapping him on the shoulder with a sword 
dungeon [DUN jun]: the castle's keep; also the cells within the keep for holding  prisoners 
écuyer: [ay koo YAY] French word for esquire
eminence: see above
escheat: legal action that bequeathed the lord of a manor the land of a tenant who died without heirs; legal action that gave the lord of the manor the land of a tenant convicted of a felony
esquire: young candidate for knighthood who attends a knight and carries his shield 
Excalibur [ex KAL ih ber]: King Arthur's magical sword 
eyre: term used to descrbe the journey of a traveling judge who holds court in various places
falconer: trainer of hunting birds, such as falcons and hawks 
fealty: see above
felony: see above
fief [FEEF]: land worked by peasants on behalf of a vassal see above
fool: In the courts of England, a fool was a comic figure with a quick tongue who entertained the king, queen and their guests. He was allowed to--and even expected to--criticize anyone at court. Many fools, or jesters, were dwarfs or cripples, their odd appearance enhancing their appeal and, according to prevailing beliefs, bringing good luck to the court. Shakespeare wrote many fools into his plays. Among them were the fool in King Lear and Feste in Twelfth Night. William Kempe and Richard Armin became London celebrities for their performances as fools in Shakespeare's plays. Armin wrote a book about fools entitled Foole Upon Foole; or Six Sortes of Sottes.
franklin: free man of common birth who held land 
free lance: an independent warrior; a soldier for hire 
friar: male member of begging (mendicant) religious order, such as the Franciscans and Dominicans
garderobe [GARD robe]: toilet, privy, latrine
gauntlet [GAWNT lit]: heavy glove worn with medieval armor to protect the hand
George, Saint: patron saint of England and the Order of the Garter, England's most important order of knights. A tale is told that he rescued the daughter of a Libyan king by slaying a dragon. 
goliard [GAWL yerd]: wandering student of Medieval Europe who made merry and wrote earthy or satiric verses in Latin. Goliards sometimes served as jesters or minstrels 
gorget [GOR jit] metal covering in a suit of armor to protect the throat
greave: armor covering the lower leg, from the knee to the angle
guild [GILD]: union of workers in the same craft 
gules [GYOOLZ]: in heraldry, the color red. Example from Shakespeare: "Head to foot now is he total gules; horridly trick'd with blood of fathers, mothers, daughters, sons" (Hamlet to Polonius, Hamlet, Act II, Scene II).
haft: handle of a weapon 
halberd: spear equipped with a battle-ax; halberds were used mainly between 1400 and 1600
hauberk: [HAW berk] knight's protective tunic made of chain mail
herald: (1) officer who carried messages for a king or an army;  (2) authority on family histories and coats of arms who announced jousting tournaments and conducted royal ceremonies 
heraldry: art and science of tracing family histories through symbols on shields and other objects 
hilt: handle of a sword or dagger 
Holy Grail: cup of Jesus sought by the Knights of the Roundtable 
jongleur: [The j is pronounced like the si in Asian; ong is pronounced as in wrong: JONG lur] roving musician who sang and recited poetry in France and Norman England
journeyman: craftsman or tradesman sufficiently skilled to work for wages for a master; worker whose ability was greater than an apprentice's but less than a master's 
joust: combat between mounted warriors armed with lances 
jus primae noctis [jus: y+the sound oo in wood+ s; primae: PRE may; noctis: NOK tis] Latin term loosely translated as right of the first night. A lord used this term to claim what he believed was his right to sleep with the wife of a vassal on the first night after the wedding. This so-called right is also referred to as droit du seigneur (right of the lord). 
keep: see above
knappe: German term for a page undergoing training; valet or varlet 
knight-errant [AIR int]: knight who roved in search of adventure 
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre: knights who received their dubbing in the Holy Land at the tomb of Christ
Knights of the Order of St. Lazarus: knights who protected leper hospitals
Knights-Templars [TEM plers]: religious order of knights who protected pilgrims to the Holy Land and fought the enemies of Christianity 
Knights of the Teutonic Order: German knights organized to serve in the Crusades
Lammas-tide: harvest festival held in England on August 1. In Romeo and Juliet, Lammas-tide is the day after Juliet's birthday (Lammas-eve), when she turns 14 (Act I, Scene III, Lines 14-15).
lance: thrusting weapon with a wooden shaft and pointed metal head 
liege [LEEJ]: lord or sovereign; one entitled to the services of  subjects 
lists: bounded field in which jousts were held; jousting arena 
loophole: narrow opening in the wall of a castle or another fortress through which arrows could be fired or activity observed
machicolation: [muh CHIK uh LAY shun]  see above
Magna Carta: document granted by King John in 1215 spelling out civil and political liberties 
manciple: one who purchased supplies for a monastery, a manor, a college, or another institution
manor: land occupied and overseen by a lord and worked by peasant farmers 
marshal: official in charge of horses and stables 
master craftsman: expert at his craft; worker at the top of his profession who  trained novices 
medieval [me de E vl]: pertaining to the Middle Ages; (see Middle Ages) 
Middle Ages: period of history beginning about 400 A.D. and lasting until 1500 A.D.; period between ancient and modern eras 
miller: operator of a flour mill
minstrel [MIN strl]: roving medieval musician who sang and recited poetry 
moat: see above
monk: male member of a religious order living in a monastery who observed a strict lifestyle to bring himself close to God
motte: see above
ordeal: severe test to determine the guilt or innocence of an alleged criminal 
Order of the Garter: most important order of  English knights, founded in 1348 by King Edward III
oriel: window that projects out from a wall; bay window
oubliette [oo ble ET]: underground cell (dungeon) whose only access is through a trap door in the ceiling. Oubliette is derived from the French word oublier (oo ble ay), meaning to forget.
page: boy who attended a knight and ranked behind a squire 
palfrey: fine riding horse favored by women
pauldron [PAWL drun] metal covering in a suit of armor to protect the shoulder
petard [pih TARD] container of explosives used to blow a hole through the wall or gate of a castle (or any other building) 
pilgrim: person who traveled to pray at a religious shrine 
plate armor: iron or steel plate in a suit of armor
poacher: one who hunted on another's land. Poachers who were caught were put to death for harvesting another man's meat, especially if the other man was the king. 
portcullis: see above
postern: entrance other than the main one; back door; secondary gate
primogeniture: right of the oldest son in a family to inherit his father's property. (See also ultimogeniture.)
quintain [QUIN tain, QUIN tn]: target for jousting practice 
reeve: supervising officer of an English town; supervising peasant of a manor
ritter: German word for knight
sap: Narrow trench dug to undermine a fortress wall
scutage [SKYOO tij]: tax payment in lieu of military service 
seignior [sane YOR]: feudal lord 
sheriff : principal officer or overseer of an English shire. The word derives from shire (see shire in this glossary) and reeve (see reeve in this glossary. The pronunciation of these two words together (shire-reeve) evolved into sheriff.
shire: in England, an administrative unit similar to the modern county 
siege [SEEJ]: encirclement of a castle to cut off supplies and/or to prepare for an assault 
Sir : title of respect preceding the name of a knight
solar: see above
squire: aspiring knight who attended a knight and was second in rank to a knight 
stot: animal (such as an ox or a horse) used for plowing
surcoat [SER kote]: tunic, or loose-fitting garment, worn by a knight over his armor 
suzerain [SOO zuh rain]: lord or baron to whom others pledge allegiance 
tabard [TAB erd]: (1) knight's short-sleeved cloak with his coat of arms; (2) herald's coat, showing the arms of his lord; (3) pennant hanging from  a trumpet 
tapestry [TAP ih stree]: heavy woven cloth displaying pictures or intricate designs; a tapestry usually adorned a wall
tilting: see joust
torche-culs [TORSH KUL]: toilet paper of straw 
trebuchet [TREB yoo shet]: engine of war with a long wooden arm that could hurl heavy stones and other missiles. At the end of the arm was sling or spoon that held the missile. Under tension, the arm was held down. When the tension was released, the arm hurled the missile, 
troubadour [TROO buh dor]: lyric poet/musician of southern France or  northern Italy; minstrel 
ultimogeniture: [ALL tih moh JEN ih chur] right of the youngest son in a family to inherit his father's property 
valet [VAL ay]: page; knight's personal attendant 
varlet [VAR lit]: page; knight's personal attendant
vassal: see above
victuals [vittles]: food; a meal
villein [VIL en]: peasant who was legally free in his relations with ordinary folk but remained a slave to his lord
warranty: see above
wassail!: [WAHS uhl] drinking toast
wheelwright: craftsman who makes and repairs wheels on horse-drawn vehicles
yeoman [YOH min]: (1) land-holding independent farmer; (2) attendant or servant of a royal or noble family; (3) an assistant of a sheriff or another officer 

Common Occupations
Actor.Man or boy who performs in a stage play. In Shakespeare's time, males acted both male and female parts in a play.
Acrobat.Entertainer who performs various gymnastic stunts, such as leaps and somersaults. Also called tumbler.
Apothecary.Person who sells drugs and herbs
Armorer.Person who makes armor for soldiers
Astrologer.Person who predicted events by "reading" the stars, the planets, the sun, and the moon
Baker.Person who prepared bread, pastry, and other baked goods
Barber-Surgeon.Person who cuts hair, trims beards, cleans and pulls teeth, amputates limbs, and performs bloodletting
Bard.Poet or storyteller
Barrister.Lawyer who settles estates and handles land disputes, money claims, etc.
Bawd.Keeper of a brothel
Beadle.Minor church official who kept order during services and performed menial tasks; messenger for law courts
Bellmaker.Maker of bells
Blacksmith.Person who makes horseshoes and other objects from iron heated in a forge, then shaped, welded, or cut with various tools
Boatman.Boat operator
Bookbinder.Binder of published manuscripts, journals, diaries, etc.
Bowyer (or Bower, Boyer).Person who makes bows that shoot arrows
Brazier.Maker of brass objects
Brewer.Maker of beer and ale
Butcher.Person who cuts meat
Carpenter.Person who makes and repairs items of wood
Cartographer.Maker of maps
Chancellor.Secretary of a person of high rank
Chandler.Person who makes candles from wax or tallow
Chapman.Operator of a warehouse; trader, peddler, merchant
Chimney Sweep (or Sweeper).Person who cleans soot from chimneys
Clerk.Keeper of accounts and records
Clockmaker.Person who makes and repairs clocks
Clothier.Maker of fine clothes for the well-to-do
Cocker.Person who breeds, trains, and handles fighting roosters, or cocks
Constable.Officer of a court or royal household; castle or fortress warden
Cook.Preparer of food in a household
Cooper.Person who makes barrels
Coppersmith.Person who makes, repairs, and repairs items of copper
Crier.Person who walks the streets ringing a bell as he shouted news and proclamations
Currier.Person who prepares tanned leather by soaking, scraping, coloring, or beating it
Cutler.Person who makes, sells, sharpens, and repairs knives
Draper.Dealer in clothes or drapes
Drayer or Drayman.Person with a horse-drawn cart for transporting heavy loads
Dyer.Person who dyes cloth
Embroiderer.Person who uses needlework to make designs on fabric
Factor.Person who makes business transactions for another person; agent
Falconer.Person who breeds and trains hunting falcons and hawks; person who hunts with falcons and hawks
Farrier.Blacksmith who specializes in making horseshoes
Fishwife.Woman who sells fish
Fletcher.Person who makes arrows
Fool.Comic figure with a quick tongue who entertains the king, the queen, and their guests. He is allowed to–and even expected to–criticize anyone at court. In Shakespeare's time, Many fools were dwarfs or cripples, their odd appearance enhancing their appeal and, according to prevailing beliefs, bringing good luck to the court. Actors William Kempe and Richard Armin became London celebrities for their performances as fools in Shakespeare's plays. Armin wrote a book about fools entitled Foole Upon Foole; or Six Sortes of Sottes.
Forester.Person who supervises the woods of a landowner. He sells timber and guards against trespassers. 
Fowler.Person who hunts and sells game birds to kitchens
Franklin.Landowner in the 13th and 14th Centuries who was not of noble birth
Fuller.Person who cleanses, thickens, and fulls cloth. To full cloth means to make it fuller by pleating or gathering.
Furbisher.Person who polished or burnished various objects
Gardener.Person skilled at tending gardens
Grocer.Person who sold foods and general household supplies
Glazier.Person who cuts and installs glass for windows
Glover.Maker of  gloves
Goldsmith.Person who makes, repairs and sells items of gold
Gravedigger.Person who digs graves
Groom.Male servant in a household; man or boy who tends, feeds, and cleans (with a currycomb) horses in a stable
Haberdasher.Person who sells men's clothing 
Hatmaker.Person who makes hats
Hawker.Person who breeds and trains hunting hawks; person who hunts with hawks; falconer
Herbalist.Person who grows, sells, or studies herbs, mainly for use as medical remedies 
Herald.Person who announces official declarations, edicts, news, etc.; carrier of messages for the crown; arranger and announcer of jousting matches; overseer of armorial bearings (images on shields) 
Hosier.Maker of socks and stockings (hosiery)
Innkeeper.Person who owned or hosted an inn
Ironmonger.Dealer in hardware
Jeweler.Person who makes, repairs, and sells items of jewelry
Joiner.Person who makes cabinets, furniture, interior woodwork, doors, window sashes, and other wooden objects
Jester.See Fool
Latten Maker.Maker of thin sheets of brass or an alloy. Latten was used to make church vessels and utensils.
Laundress.Woman who washes clothes
Lawyer.Person trained in the law
Limner.Person who paints or draws portraits
Locksmith.Person who makes keys and installs and repairs locks
Lorimer.Maker of metal parts for harnesses and other riding gear
Maid.Female servant, such as barmaid, chambermaid, milkmaid, or housemaid
Marshal.Person in charge of a castle's or a household's horses and wagons
Mattress Maker.Maker of mattresses
Mercer.Dealer in well-made woven, knitted, and other fabrics; some mercers specialized in a particular cloth, such as silk or wool 
Midwife.Woman who delivers babies
Milkmaid.Woman who milks cows; dairymaid; vendor of milk 
Minstrel.Traveling musician who sang or recited to the accompaniment of an instrument
Moneylender.Person who lends money at interest
Monger.Roving merchant who sells goods from a cart or another portable device. Examples: fishmonger, ironmonger
Ostler.Operator of an inn that rents rooms and stable space and serves food and drink
Painter.Artist who paints portraits, landscapes, etc.
Peddler.Itinerant seller of merchandise 
Pewterer.Person who makes and repairs items of pewter
Physician.Medical doctor
Playwright.Person who writes plays
Porter.Doorkeeper, gatekeeper
Poulterer.Dealer in poultry and other game
Printer.Person who sets type in a form for printing; owner of printing business
Purser.Ship officer who keeps financial accounts and secures valuables for passengers
Reeve.Chief officer of a town or manor
Roper.Maker of ropes
Salter.Person who sells salt or salts meat, fish, and other food
Sawyer.Person who saws wood for construction
Schoolmaster.Teacher of children
Scribe.Person who copies manuscripts by hand and prepares handwritten documents
Sculptor.Person who fashions artistic objects from stone, clay, metal, and other media
Seamstress.Woman who sews for a living
Searcher.Person who identifies victims of plague and quarantines their houses 
Servant.Person who carries out routine household chores
Shepherd.Person who herds and watches over sheep
Salter.Person who deals in salt or salts foods such as meat and fish
Sheriff.Important civil officer of a shire (county)
Shipwright.Carpenter who builds and repairs ships
Shoemaker.Person who makes and repairs shoes; cordwainer
Sieve Maker.Maker of sieves (strainers or sifters)
Silversmith.Person who makes, repairs, and sells items of silver
Slater.Person who lays slate on roofs
Soapmaker.Person who makes soap
Spoonmaker.Maker of spoons
Spurrier.Maker of spurs
Stapler.Person who sorts wool according to its staple (the length, texture, and quality of its fibers); buyer and seller of wool, linen, and silk
Stationer.Publisher of books. Stationers belonged to a guild (the Worshipful Company of Stationers) which the government established and supervised in order to guard against the publication of subversive books or books unduly critical of the Crown. When one stationer acquired the rights to publish copies of a book, the other members were bound to respect this "copy right," preparing the way for modern copyright laws.
Stonecutter.Person who cuts, shapes, and carves stone; stonemason
Tailor.Person who makes clothing
Tanner.Person turns hides into leather by soaking it in tannin, a chemical that prevents the skin from decaying
Taverner.Person who maintains a tavern
Thatcher.Person who thatches (covers roofs with straw or other plant material)
Tinker.Traveling handyman who repairs household items, such as pots and pans; person who can repair almost anything; jack-of-all trades 
Trader.Businessman involved in importing and exporting various supplies and merchandise
Tranter.Peddler who sells his wares from a horse-drawn cart
Tumbler.Entertainer who performs handsprings, somersaults, and other feats requiring physical agility
Turner.Person who shapes wooden objects, such as table legs, on a lathe (a machine that holds and rotates wood while it is pressed against an abrasive surface) 
Verger.Official who bears the symbol of authority, such as a rod or staff, of a bishop or dean in a procession
Vintner.Person who makes and sells wine
Warrener.Person who breeds or catches rabbits
Weaver.Person who makes cloth
Wheelwright.Person who makes and repairs wagon, cart, and carriage wheels
Wiredrawer.Person who draws metal into wire
Woodcarver.Person who carves wood to make it decorative
Page.Boy servant; boy attending a knight or a boy in training to become a knight
Puppeteer.Person who stages puppet shows
Saddler.Maker of saddles and bridles
Skinner.Person who removes the skins of animals and prepares them for sale; seller of hides
Tiler.Person who installs roof tiles
Washerwoman.Woman who washes clothes